LCC/LCA Computer Model


Shipyard blasting and painting constitutes a major portion of the overall work carried out by the shipbuilding industry. These two processes contribute significantly to the quantities of multimedia wastes that have bearing on direct, indirect and societal costs. Because of the numerous alternatives available using the combinations of,

  1. Materials (e.g., copper slag, garnet, sand, hematite, and steel shot in case of dry abrasive blasting; waterborne paints, high VOC paints, and anti-fouling paints in case of painting)
  2. Process parameters (e.g., blast pressure and feed rate in case of blasting; pressure and others in case of paint systems), and
  3. Equipment (e.g., HVLP, air assisted, and air less in case of painting equipment).

It often becomes difficult to optimize long-term costs to shipyards as well as societal costs (pollution related costs) unless a comprehensive life cycle costing (LCC) and life cycle analysis(LCA) system is available.

This LCC/LCA model estimates three types of costs

  1. direct costs (material costs, equipment costs, energy costs and labor costs) borne by shipyards,
  2. shipyard indirect costs (waste disposal costs, environmental fee, compliance costs, worker health care, and costs associated with environmental operations),
  3. Societal costs (increased health care of the affected people, costs of environmental damage) borne by the public and the government.

Important parameters including, type of dry abrasive (sand, coal slag, copper slag, garnet, hematite, and others), size/grade of abrasives (coarse, medium, and fine), blast pressures, feed rate, and nozzle size are used to estimate optimum productivity and consumption of blasting operation to minimize the cost burden. Type of paint, surface area coated and transfer rate are the main parameters used to evaluate the life cycle costs of painting operation. Health and environmental impacts from the emissions and associated costs are used to estimate the societal costs. This model uses the literature data and more recently developed UNO data on productivity and emissions as the knowledge-base to (1) calculate three specific types of costs and to (2) suggest alternative materials, process measures to minimize the costs as well as the environmental/health impacts. These concepts are being applied to other industrial processes.

Other Research Activities

  1. Expert Environmental Management System (Expert EMS) for Shipyards

  2. LCC/LCA Computer Model

  3. OSHA Compliance Management System (OSHA-CMS)

  4. Health Risk Management System for Air Toxics (HRMS-AT)

  5. Emissions Test Facility (ETF)