Acknowledgements

The development of a reference database and collection of duiker fecal samples throughout central Africa would not be possible without the contribution of the following individuals and organizations:

Individuals and Organizations

Stephan Ntie, Anne Johnston, Richard Rouyer, Ivan Soto-Calderon, Rachel Wallace, Kimberly LeBlanc, Anna Martinez (University of New Orleans, LA, USA): Stephan Ntie and Anne Johnston are both graduate students at the University of New Orleans (UNO) who have worked on the reference phylogeny, RFLP analyses, nuclear introns phylogeny and mitochondrial and nuclear microsatellite analysis. Ivan Soto-Calderon contributed to the development of microsatellite loci and the quantitative PCR assay. Rachel Wallace contributed to the development of a reference phylogeny. Undergraduate students Richard Rouyer, Kimberly LeBlanc and Anna Martinez have worked on the development of a reference phylogeny, sex-specific marker and mitochondrial sequencing.

Pr. Philippe Blot, Pr. Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Dr. Jean Wickings, Dr. Paul Telfer, Dr. Kathryn Jeffery, Dr. Kate Abernethy, Dr. Mathieu Bourgarel (Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville, Gabon): Senior administrators and scientists have facilitated the organization, DNA extraction and storage of project field and market samples. Laboratory facilities at the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (CIRMF) were used to store samples and carry out preliminary laboratory work. A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between UNO and CIRMF has been signed by both parties.

Professor Bertrand Mbatchi, Dr. Patrick Mickala, Dr. Christiane Attéké, Dr. Brama Ibrahim (Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku, Franceville, Gabon): The project has a long-standing collaborative relationship with the Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku (USTM) and with faculty members in the Department of Biology. Faculty and administrators at USTM have contributed to both laboratory and field work on the project. Key faculty have also facilitated student training (Patrick Mickala, Christiane Attéké) and conducted sabbatical research at UNO (Patrick Mickala). An MOU between UNO and USTM has been signed by both parties.

Lee White, Fiona Maisels, Bryan Curran, Josefien Demmer, Hans Overman, Oliver Hymas (Wildlife Conservation Society, Gabon): Senior scientists and field managers have facilitated the collection of samples and provided logistical support and advice. The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) program “Projet Gibier” has also provided us with market samples from the towns of Lambaréné, Okondja and Franceville for the reference phylogeny. An MOU between UNO and WCS has been established.

Dr. Bettine Jansen van Vuuren (University of Stellenbosch, South Africa): Dr. Bettine Jansen van Vuuren has been a key collaborator on the construction of a reference phylogeny for this project. In 2007, she donated her entire Cephalophus DNA collection from her earlier publication on duiker phylogenetic (van Vuuren and Robinson, 2001) to aid in the construction of our reference phylogeny. She has also offered advice on the selection of the four nuclear introns (Matthee et al., 2001; Willows-Munro et al., 2005) we are using to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of duikers from the genus Cephalophus.

Andrew Bowkett, Dr. Jamie Stevens (University of Exeter, U.K) and Dr. Amy Plowman (Whitley Wildlife Conservation Trust and Paignton Zoo, U.K.): Andrew Bowkett is a Ph.D. student in the laboratory of Dr. Jamie Stevens. He is interested in the demographic history and distribution of Cephalophus spadix. We have collaborated closely with him on the development of a molecular diagnostic. Dr. Amy Plowman is Head of Field Conservation and Research for the Whitley Wildlife Conservation Trust and serves as an advisor to Andrew.

Dr. Marc Colyn (University of Rennes, France): Dr. Colyn kindly provided samples of several duiker species from multiple sites across central Africa. Dr. Colyn has already carried out extensive morphometric work on duikers in his collection. This knowledge will help resolve any taxonomic uncertainties from our projected revision of this group whilst at the same time provide valuable sequences for our reference phylogeny and comparative phylogeographic study.

Dr. Erik Verheyen, Gontran Sonet (Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Belgium): Dr. Verheyen and his research associate have provided logistical support for work on Dr. Colyn’s samples and contributed to the development of a robust reference phylogeny.

Dr. Sally Lahm (Institut de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale, Gabon and Ecology & Environment, Inc., USA): Dr. Lahm has previously collaborated with the PI on gorilla phylogeography (Anthony et al., 2007) and has worked in Central Africa for over 20 years. She has served as an advisor on this project and has co-authored the project paper on the Cephalophus molecular diagnostic (Ntie et al., 2009). She has also observed suspected cases of hybridization between C. callipygus and C. ogilbyi in Gabon which will greatly assist us in the interpretation of our findings.

Dr. Roger Fotso and staff (Wildlife Conservation Society, Cameroon): Dr. Fotso is the Cameroon country director for the WCS program and oversees WCS activities in the Mbam et Djerem National Park. Staff negotiated permits on our behalf to conduct field work and to access the National Park in 2007 in Cameroon. His office also organized the appropriate export permits. The field team in residence at Thibati adjacent to the Mbam et Djerem National Park provided us with accommodation at the field station, vehicle transportation into the park, canoeists to transport us down the Sanaga river and two expert field guides.

Dr. Aaron Nicholas and Dr. Ymke Warren (Takamanda Forest Reserve, Wildlife Conservation, Cameroon): Drs. Nicholas and Warren have also sampled duiker dung on our behalf from the Takamanda forest reserve close to the Nigerian border. Together with the adjacent Cross River National Park in Nigeria, the Takamanda area represents an important faunal reserve for primates and forest artiodactyls (Forboseh et al., 2007).

Dr. Zacharie Nzooh, Dr. Leonard Usongo (World Wildlife Fund, Lobéké National Park, Cameroon): Both WWF field managers assisted us in setting up our field expedition to Lobéké National Park. The on site manager Louis Ngono also helped us with logistics including the hire of a vehicle to access the park and two field assistants and a cook.

Dr. Germain Ngandjui (World Wildlife Fund, Kudu Zombo project, Campo Ma’an National Park, Cameroon): Dr. Germain Ngandjui and his field team provided us with logistical support to and from Kribi to the park at Campo and field guides for our work in Campo Ma’an National Park.

Dr. Gail Hearn (Arcadia University, PA, USA), Dr. Tom Butynski (Bioko Biodiversity Protection Program, Equatorial Guinea) and Dr. Jose Essara (Universidad Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial, Equatorial Guinea): Both INDEFOR and the Bioko Biodiversity Protection Program provided assistance in accommodation, field staff and transportation on the island of Bioko.

Dr. O. Ryder, Dr. B. Morgan (Centre for Research on Endangered Species (CRES), San Diego Zoo, Cameroon and USA): Dr. Ryder has provided us with DNA extracted from individual matrilines from the Cephalophus tissue collection held at the zoo.Dr. Morgan contributed dung samples to the project from the Yabassi-Makombe-Ebo region of Cameroon where a population of western lowland gorillas was recently discovered (Morgan et al., 2003).

Dr. Andrew Dunn (Cross River National Park, Wildlife Conservation Society-Nigeria): Dr. Dunn has been collaborating with us since 2006 and has sent several batches of duiker dung samples from the Cross River Cameroon-Nigeria trans-boundary area. The Cross River National Park system is an important stronghold for the critically endangered Cross River gorilla subspecies Gorilla gorilla diehli (Suter and Oates, 2000).

Dr. Richard Tshombe (WCS, Democratic Republic of Congo): The WCS program in the Democratic Republic of Congo has facilitated sampling at Salonga National Park.

Dr. Julie Feinstein (American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), USA): We have taken samples of tissue scraps from skulls and bones of duiker specimens. The museum has also loaned us five duiker tissue samples from their in house frozen tissue collection.

Dr. Larry Heaney (Field Museum of Natural History, USA): We have taken samples of tissue scraps from skulls, bones as well and tanned skins from the mammalogy collection of the museum.

Dr. Jay Vavra and Megan Morikawa (Duke University, U.S.A. and High Tech High, San Diego, U.S.A.): Megan is an undergraduate from Duke University who spent a summer at UNO working on testing DNA barcoding criteria on the Cephalophus dataset. She is also a former high school student of Dr. Vavra where she first began work on DNA barcoding. Our thanks to Megan Morikawa for constructing and updating the project website.

Government Agencies

Gabon: (a) Madame Sambo, Directrice de la Recherche Scientifique et de la Coopération Scientifique et Technique, Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur de la Recherche et de l’Innovation Technologique (Research permit No. 0006, 2006); (b) Mr. Samuel Mbadinga, Commissaire Général, Commission Scientifique sur les Parcs Nationaux, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique (CENAREST), Ministère de l’Environnement de la Protection de la Nature, de la Recherche et de la Technologie (Research permit N° AR0002/08). The export of samples from Gabon and processing of relevant CITES permits was organized through the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville. Field sampling along the Ogooué was carried out with the assistance of (a) the Department of Eaux et Forêts in Ogooué Maritime, Moyen Ogooué and towns of Booué, Lastourville and Boumango (b) the Nautical Brigade of the Gendarmerie Nationale of Makouké (c) the Prefecture of police in Lastourville (d) and Mr. Théophile Pono, the Secrétaire Général du Conseil Départemental de Bendjé (Ogooué Maritime) who assisted in securing boats for sampling efforts from Port-Gentil to Lambaréné.

Cameroon: Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique et de l’Innovation (Research permits No. 111-113, 2007). The Ministère des Forêts et de la Faune granted to us two permits: one for the access to National Parks (No. 0683, 2007) and the other to export fecal samples out of Cameroon.

Equatorial Guinea: Ms. Francisca Eneme Efua of the Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo Forestal y Gestión del Sistema de Areas Protegidas (INDEFOR), for research and export permits and for releasing INDEFOR staff to work with us in the field: Juan Antonio Edjang (Monte Alen National Park, mainland Equatorial Guinea), Angela Mang (Monte Alen National Park) and Salvador Asama (Scientific Reserve of the Luba Caldera, Bioko island). Mr. Eyono provided us with detailed GIS maps of three sites in Equatorial Guinea where we carried out field work: Monte Alen, Monte Mitra and Bioko Island.

Republic of Congo: Department of Fauna and Protected Areas (DFAP) of the Republic of the Congo for permission to collect fecal samples.

Democratic Republic of Congo: ICCN (Institut Congolais pour la Protection de la Nature) for permission to collect fecal samples.

 

Funding

This study was funded by NSF award DEB 0516425 and the Coopération Française, Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, France (#FSP Titre VI Projet 2002 0046 00 FORINFO). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

 
Contact
  • Nicola M. Anthony
  • UNO, Dept. of Biological Sciences
  • 2000 Lakeshore Dr, New Orleans LA 70148
  • nanthony@uno.edu