In central African forests, duikers in the genus Cephalophus form part of a rich community of tropical forest artiodactyls that also include the pygmy antelope (Neotragus batesi), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei) and the water chevrotain (Hyemoschus aquaticus). Together these species constitute an important source of protein and are heavily hunted for their meat throughout central Africa (Wilkie & Carpenter, 1999; Newing, 2001; Brashares et al., 2004; Laurance et al., 2006). Duikers are small to medium in size and are typically found in tropical forests and woodland mosaics of sub-Saharan Africa. Duikers are ruminants and possess a multiple chambered stomach, enabling them to effectively digest plant tissue. At least 18 species of duiker have been described (e.g. Kingdon, 1997), of which 17 belong to the genus Cephalophus and one to the genus Sylvicapra. Mitochondrial analysis splits these species into four major groups: the conservative dwarf clade (C. monticola, C. maxwelli), the giant duiker clade (C. silvicultor, C. spadix, C. dorsalis, C. jentinki), the east African red duiker clade (C. leucogaster, C. rufilatus, C. nigrifrons, C. natalensis, C. harveyi) and west African red duiker clade (C. callipygus, C. weynsi, C. ogilbyi, C. rubidus and C. niger) leaving C. zebra and C. adersi as a separate but only weakly supported lineage (Jansen van Vuuren and Robinson, 2001). However, the taxonomy of duikers is still relatively poorly understood and this number can vary depending on the classification scheme used. The name “duiker” is Afrikaans for diver, referring to their tendency to use their powerful hind-legs to dive into the underbrush in response to threat. The horns of duikers are small, back-pointing, and close to the skull, which ensures that they do not get tangled in the thick underbrush of the forest. Fruit makes up an important part of the diet of many species although the composition of the diet may vary with season (see Feer, 1989). With the exception of the blue duiker (Cephalophus monticola), duikers are generally solitary and can be nocturnal, diurnal or active during the day and night (Dubost, 1983a, b; Bowland and Perrin, 1995). They also make extensive use of preorbital scent glands as a means of social communication (Dubost, 1983a).
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